Informes de aplicaciones (21)

  • Superabsorbent Polymers (SAP)

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) are granulated polymers with the capacity to absorb liquids up to five hundred times their own weight. Superabsorbents are used in sanitary products such as baby diapers, in the packaging industry, e.g. to absorb moisture escaping from fish, vegetables or meat, for water storage in agriculture, for technical applications like cable wrapping tape, and even for firefighting. Depending on the application, different sized polymer granules are required which makes the control of the particle size an important step in the quality management process.
  • Petroleum Coke

    In the Metal Industry monitoring of the raw material for electrodes is exceptionally important to increase the quality of the finished product. With the aid of the CAMSIZER many customers in this sector have been able to improve their production processes.
  • Detergents

    The particle size of washing powder/detergents and its ingredients determines not only the “look and feel” of the final end customer product, but also the dissolution of the particles in water and the quality of the washing process.
  • Sand

    Sand is a universally applicable material and an essential raw material in a vast range of industrial areas: as filter material to filter small particles from the liquid, as an aggregate for concrete, mortar and plaster, for the manufacture of sand molds for industrial castings, or as blasting abrasive. These are just a few applications. The CAMSIZER is able to measure particle size and shape of the material to guarantee the compliance with quality specifications and –standards.
  • Fertilizer / Düngemittel

    Fertilizers are organic or inorganic nutrients for plants which may be either liquid or granular. They are used to enrich the soil in order to improve the quality and/or quantity of plant growth. The CAMSIZER is needed for quality assurance as the fertilizer needs to have a very defined size distribution to ensure a certain dilution time and controlled release of nutrients.
  • AuditTrailManager

    The software package “AuditTrail Manager” is one fundamental precondition for compliance with CFR21 part11. It provides user mangement, various password protected access levels, electronic signatures and will maintain the Audit Trail: an encrypted database that records all relevant software operations.
  • Extrudates

    This application note is about the size and shape measurement of extrudates but can also be applied to the analysis of other elongated, cylindrical or rod-shaped particles.
  • Foundry Sand

    Foundry sands usually have a size distribution from 0,1 mm – 0,8 mm with a mean size between 0,2 mm and 0,45 mm. A standard parameter to express the size of molding sands is the AFS fineness number (AFS = American Foundry Society). This number is calculated from the size distribution, which is determined by standard ASTM sieves.
  • Ferrosilicon

    Ferrosilicon is produced either in a blast furnace or electric arc furnace by the reduction of quartz sand (SiO2) with coke in the presence of iron. The melt is poured out of the furnace and solidifies in the form of a flat sheet. After cooling, this sheet is crushed by appropiate machinery and then further processed in a crusher. The resulting size distribution ranges from fine dust-like particles to cm-sized chunks. The FeSi is screened into different size grades for further use.
  • Rice

    Since rice is a basic foodstuff, its product quality has to be controlled carefully.
    Particle size analysis and control of the product appearance is carried out in almost every plant, as the size and shape not only influence the taste or appearance of the final products, but are also important indicators for the production process itself.
  • Nuts, Granulated Chocolate, Coconut Flakes

    The food industry has very strict regulations for the quality control of raw materials as well as final products. This relates not only to their chemical composition and biological aspects but also to the particle size. Size analysis and control of the product appearance is carried out in almost every production facility, as the particle size and shape not only influence the final products, but are also important indicators for the production process itself.
  • Salt

    Salt (NaCl, KCl) is used mainly in the chemical industry (85%), but also in the production of food, washing powder,  for de-icing and as organic and inorganic fertilizer  which can be either liquid or granular. It can be recovered in different ways,  either by mining from underground or open deposits(dry mining, rock salt) or by extracting it from sea water (wet mining).
  • Pharmaceutical Granules

    Granules, which contain a mixture of medical agents and various carrier substances like polymers, sugar, cellulose or polysaccharides, are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. The granules are used in different pharmaceutical forms: directly filled in a dispenser (Globuli) or processed and filled e.g. into gelatine coated capsules or pressed into soluble tablets. During the production process of pharmaceutical granules both size and shape analysis of the globules are important for a reliable release rate of the drug.
  • Glass Beads

    Glass beads are used in a wide variety of applications, e.g. as reflective paints for road signs and road markings. They are made from new or recycled crushed glass (cullet). The size distribution of these beads ranges from 50 μm to approx. 2 – 3 mm. Due to the imprecise manufacturing process, which also produces non-round beads, it is important to control the process and the quality of the finished product.
  • EPS

    Expanded Polystyrene is a lightweight, rigid, plastic foam insulation or packing material. For the final product properties (e.g. density) it is important to have a profound knowledge of the particle size distribution. The CAMSIZER can deliver reliable information on particle size and shape.
  • Metal Powders

    Metal powders and ores are used in many different industries and research fields, ranging from mining and steel production to aerospace or defense. The powders are used for example as coatings, catalysts, battery electrodes or as raw materials for powder metallurgy (PM). PM produces highly engineered, sophisticated parts like special gears and motor parts for the automotive industry, manifolds for oil rigs, medical scissors etc.
  • Proppants

    Proppants are used in the oil and gas industry to increase the flow of oil or gas from a well (drilling hole). Proppants are particles that are pumped into the oil well to hold the fissures open so that the natural gas or crude oil can flow up the well.
  • Activated Coal

    Activated Carbon is used as filter material in various industrial areas where it binds e.g. gas, bacteria or odours. In the automobile industry for example, activated carbon filters are used to prevent the evaporation of gasoline fumes into the environment by hydrocarbon adsorption. Particle shape and size distribution of the material have a crucial impact on the filter characteristics. The CAMSIZER provides reliable information on both of them and is therefore an ideal instrument for quality and production control.
  • Coffee & Tea

    The food industry has very strict regulations for the quality control of raw materials as well as final products. This relates not only to their chemical composition and biological aspects but also to the particle size. Size analysis and control of the product appearance is carried out in almost every production facility, as the particle size and shape not only influence the final products, but are also important indicators for the production process itself.
  • Sugar

    Sugar is an essential ingredient in a lot of foodstuff. The annual global sugar production amounts to approx. 145 Mio tons. The size range of crystal sugar spreads between icing sugar (0.024 mm) and rock candy (>10 mm). Most common table sugars are in the size range of 0.5 mm (“granulated sugar”). Different product sizes are either produced by sieving the refined sugar, or by milling the crystals down to the finest powder sizes.
  • Catalysts

    Catalysts are widely used in the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, especially in petrochemistry1. They are able to accelerate chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy, i.e. they change reaction kinetics. Thus, using catalysts in industrial processes has the advantage of higher productivity at shorter time combined with less energy consumption.

Informes técnicos (14)

  • Análisis granulométrico de piezas molturadoras

    La redondez como criterio de calidad
  • Quality control of recycled glass

    Particle shape analysis of glass beads
  • Particle Characterization of Pharmaceutical Products by Dynamic Image Analysis

    Higher resolution, better sensitivity, and excellent reproducibility: this is how Dynamic Image Analysis (DIA) improves the characterization of powders and granulates in both quality control and R&D. This white paper outlines how particle size distribution and particle shape are determined by DIA, illustrated by application examples from the pharmaceutical industry which prove the superiority of the method over sieve analysis and laser diffraction.
  • White Paper: Comparison of Methods

    Different measuring techniques provide different results – but what is the truth? The most common techniques to determine the particle size distribution are dynamic image analysis (DIA), static laser light scatter-ing (SLS, also called laser diffraction) and sieve analysis. This white paper presents the advantages and drawbacks of each technique, their comparability among each other as well as detailed application examples.
  • Software Module Particle X-Plorer

    The software module Particle X-Plorer is used in both CAMSIZER P4 and CAMSIZER X2. It offers the user a wealth of features and possibilities like image evaluation, particle lists and 3D scatterplots to obtain in-depth knowledge of his sample.
  • Reliable quality control of sugar with digital image processing

    Quality control is an essential part of the sugar production process as manufacturers must ensure that the product complies with the customers’ specifications. Not only the look, texture and taste of the final product depends on the size distribution, but also the solubility, tendency to aggregate, agglomerate and other properties which are important for industrial processes using sugar as a raw material. Hence, care must be taken that particles are neither too small nor too big. Traditionally, the particle size determination is carried out by sieve analysis which is a rather slow, labour-intensive method and commonly subject to measurement errors such as: too much sample material, worn out (uncalibrated) sieves, wrong sieve parameters (amplitude and sieving time) or simple calculation errors. An excellent alternative for the quality control of sugar is Retsch Technology’s CAMSIZER®. CAMSIZER® measurements are fast, automated, accurate and 100% comparable with sieve analysis. With these advantages the instrument can reliably replace sieving.
  • Particle Shape Analysis

    Dynamic Digital image processing with the CAMSIZER
  • Quality Control of Catalysts with Digital Image Processing

    Catalysts are widely used as an important auxiliary material in the pharmaceutical and chemical industry. They are able to accelerate chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy, i.e. they change reaction kinetics. Thus, using catalysts in industrial processes has the advantage of higher productivity combined with less energy consumption. In many processes a mixture of liquid or gaseous raw materials (e.g. petroleum) is transformed in a reactor with solid catalyst material. Depending on the desired reaction, catalysts of different materials such as ceramics, alumina, metal or alloys are used. To save costs, inexpensive substrates can be coated with the actual catalyst (e.g. platinum or rhodium). The active surface as well as the form of the catalysts is crucial for their efficiency. It is important that sufficient free volume is available for the reactants. Moreover, the counter pressure built up by the catalyst must not be too high. Spherical, comb-shaped or rod-shaped geometries have proven to be especially suitable. The rod-shaped catalysts have different shapes; their profiles can have an ellipsoid, trilobe or quadrulobe shape.
  • Quality control in the fertilizer industry with Dynamic Image Analysis

    Particle size analysis is an important step in the quality control of many industrial
    production processes. This article describes the implementation of Dynamic Image Analysis (DIA) in the fertilizer industry as a typical example. DIA is used in the same way in other industries, for example for pharmaceuticals, foodstuff, plastics, chemicals, metal powders and even granulated explosives.
  • Particle Characterization with Dynamic Image Analysis

    Sieve analysis and laser diffraction are long established methods for the determination of particle size distributions. Dynamic Image Analysis (DIA) is another particle analysis technology to measure particles > 1 micron which has numerous advantages over these methods.

    Retsch Technology’s particle analyzers CAMSIZER and CAMSIZER XT, which are based on DIA technology, evaluate images of the particles which provide considerably more information on the particles than, for example, a light scattering pattern produced by a laser diffraction particle analyzer. These only allow for an indirect measurement of the particle size. The determination of parameters such as the length, width, or sphericity of particles is only possible by using image analysis.
  • Seeing is believing: Particle size and shape measurement with Dynamic Image Analysis

    Traditionally, particle size distribution analysis of pharmaceutical powders and granules is carried out by sieve analysis, microscopy or with laser diffraction. These methods are established in the pharmacopoeia and used routinely in pharmaceutical laboratories all over the world.
    With the introduction of Dynamic Image Analysis (DIA) as an alternative method, it is now possible to measure particle sizes >1 micron of powders, granules, pellets and suspensions as well as particle shape. A number of trials clearly demonstrate the advantages of DIA compared to the established particle sizing methods.
  • Efficient and precise: Particle size and shape measurement of sugar with Dynamic Image Analysis

    Sieve analysis according to ICUMSA Method GS2/9-37 is the standard for particle sizing of crystal sugar. Officially, all labs follow these guidelines, and comparable results should be seen in round robin tests. On a closer look however, each lab
    follows procedures that deviate slightly from those outlined in the ICUMSA Method. As a result, the size distributions measured by different labs vary remarkably. In this article we will discuss the typical deviations that can be found in the daily operation, and propose a new analysis method which provides
    more reproducible and reliable results.
  • Particle Size Distributions: Dynamic Image Analysis Beats Laser Diffraction

    Laser diffraction is the most frequently used measurement technique for the analysis of particle size distributions in the range 1 micron to 1 mm in the context of quality control. Modern laser diffraction systems offer some convincing advantages such as short measurement times, easy operation and reproducible analysis results. However, they also have various disadvantages: Even if the instruments have been calibrated and validated, an absolute particle size measurement is not possible. Various round robin tests have shown that the analysis results depend strongly on the type of instrument and even on the particular model and software version.

Reservado el derecho a modificaciones técnicas y eventuales errores.